English Language & LINGUISTI Christina Sanchez-Stockhammer

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  Text generation software   Online tools permit the automatic generation of different types of text or linguistic expression, such as
job titles
book titles
academic papers
postmodern discourse.
      The results can actually be quite surprising.


Compleat Lexical Tutor   The site www.lextutor.ca provides linguistic researchers with a large number of different online programs.

For instance, you can produce keyword lists from any text you paste into a search window in comparison to the balanced Brown corpus, or you can automatically colour-code the words in your text based on their frequency range

  Text variation explorer   The text variation explorer is a tool that allows you to compare two texts with each other with regard to different features such as their use of pronouns.
  USAS online English tagger   The University of Lancaster's USAS online English tagger provides a semantic classification of the words in English texts into categories such as 'Health and disease', 'Physical attributes' etc. A detailed list of the semantic categories can be found here.
  PoS tagging   The University of Lancaster's research centre UCREL has developed the CLAWS online tagger, which assigns part of speech to any word in a text (with 96% accuracy). Two tagsets can be used for the tagging: CLAWS 5 and CLAWS7
      The part-of-speech tagger by the Cognitive Computation Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign produces a part-of-speech-tagged version of English texts followed by a key to the codes. For example, the sentence  
      The cat sat on the mat.
      is tagged as 
      DT/ The NN/ cat VBD/ sat IN/ on DT/ the NN/ mat ./ .
      in which IN/ stands for a following preposition.
  Textalyser   The program textalyser provides a statistical analysis of texts, e.g. regarding the length of words, the number and length of sentences, the readability score etc.


Online surveys   You need to carry out a survey for your linguistics coursework? Then this tool may come in handy: at www.surveymonkey.com, you can create your own free online surveys.


  Treebank   The Erlangen treebank by Peter Uhrig and Thomas Proisl allows its users to generate dependency treebanks from their own corpora. Since the program is in closed beta version, you need to contact the authors to use the software.
  Dependency trees   If you just need a few dependency trees (e.g. to illustrate some grammatical phenomenon in your coursework), the online program phpSyntaxTree allows you to generate trees such as the one below very quickly and easily.

  Word clouds   By copying and pasting texts into an online window in Tag Crowd or Wordle, you can visualize the frequencies of the words in the texts as word clouds containing words of different sizes. While TagCrowd permits the inclusion of the frequency values in the cloud, Wordle's editing functions make it possible for you to create individual downloadable artworks


Excel formulae   These formulae - which are like programs - can make research easier in many ways - e.g. by retrieving double candidates, comparing two lists for overlap etc.
  Motion charts   Martin Hilpert's motion charts are a dynamic visualization of language change - and truly amazing! The tutorials show you how to create your own motion charts.
  Phonetics   If you would like to do research in English phonetics, the free software Praat, which has many useful features, may be just what you are looking for: not only does it allow you to work with spectrograms but it also comes with a very detailed beginners' guide.
  Corpora   More software links - with a focus on corpora - can be found here.